Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. Say that I have a 4 character string, and I want to convert this string into a byte array where each character in the string is translated into its hex equivalent.
I needed it for a returned data in a dbus. This is the only way it worked. Learn more. Python: convert string to byte array Ask Question. Asked 7 years, 8 months ago.
Active 8 months ago. Viewed k times. AndroidDev AndroidDev What you want is not possible, at least not in this exact form. A bytearray of type B contains 1-byte integers, and they are always represented in decimal.
Active Oldest Votes.hexadecimal string to byte array in python
This is the accepted answer and does not work in Python3. Could you please add the python3 version as pointed in other answers? Just use a bytearray which is a list of bytes. Pithikos Pithikos This is broken in 3.
KevanAhlquist my bad. Fixed it now. Regarding encodeit returns a bytes object which naturally extends a bytearray. Please update your answer to include something like s. Jon Perryman Jon Perryman 2 2 silver badges 4 4 bronze badges. Anthony Does not work in repl. Zoe 20k 12 12 gold badges 77 77 silver badges bronze badges.
July Marval July Marval 1 2 2 bronze badges. Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog.
I am trying to use the recommended Python 3 approach to turn this string into a usable string that I can manipulate. As your code may have unrecognizable characters to 'utf-8' encoding, it's better to use just str without any additional parameters:. From the docshere are more examples using the same errors parameter:. Learn more. How do I convert a Python 3 byte-string variable into a regular string? Ask Question. Asked 4 years, 9 months ago. Active 2 years ago.
Viewed k times. DjangoTango DjangoTango 1, 2 2 gold badges 7 7 silver badges 4 4 bronze badges. Active Oldest Votes. You had it nearly right in the last line. Toby Speight Toby Speight That looks like it should be a comment to pylang's answer which addresses handling invalid input. Well alper, that's not a valid UTF-8 string, so what did you expect?
Call decode on a bytes instance to get the text which it encodes. JuhaUntinen your encoding is probably not utf How to filter skip non-UTF8 charachers from array? Failov Dec 21 '16 at Seyfi Seyfi 1, 9 9 silver badges 24 24 bronze badges. GlenThompson it is just an example for unwanted conditions, that may happen.In this post, we will check how to convert a Python string to a bytes object.
Bytes objects are immutable sequences of single bytes in the range between o and inclusive. Bytes objects are immutable sequences of single bytes  in the range between o and inclusive . Additionally, we need to specify the encoding of the text in string format as second argument of the constructor .
Alternatively, we can obtain an encoded version of a string as a bytes object by calling the encode method . This method also receives as input the encoding of the text as a string, although in opposition to the previously mentioned constructor this parameter is optional and defaults to UTF-8 .
You can read more about Python standard encodings here. We will start by declaring a string, which we will use to convert to bytes using the two procedures mentioned on the introductory section. Then, using the first approach, we will create a bytes object from the previous string. To do so, we pass the string as first input of the constructor of the bytes class. As second, we need to specify the encoding, which will be utf We will store the result in a variable and then print its type, so we can confirm that it is indeed a bytes object.
The result is shown below in figure 1. As can be seen, we obtain an object of class bytesas expected. Note that although printing the object shows a user friendly textual representation, the data contained in it are actually bytes, as we will see below.
Figure 1 — String to bytes, using the bytes object constructor. Moving on, we will now use the second mentioned procedure of conversion, which is calling the encode method on the string. As stated in the introductory section, since this method has UTF-8 as the default encoding when no argument is given, then we will not pass any input to it.
Subscribe to RSS
We will again print the object returned by this method, to confirm that this is also a bytes object. The result for this portion of the code can be seen below at figure 2. Figure 2 — String to bytes, using the string encode method.
In order to check the actual value of each byte of both bytes objects, we can iterate them with a for in loop and print each element. Figure 3 — Sequence of bytes from both objects. Just as a final note, if we try to assign a value to a byte of one of the bytes object by using the  operatorthen we will get the exception shown in figure 4, due to the fact that the bytes objects are immutable.
Skip to content. Introduction In this post, we will check how to convert a Python string to a bytes object. This tutorial was tested on Python version 3. The code We will start by declaring a string, which we will use to convert to bytes using the two procedures mentioned on the introductory section. We will also print our bytes object, created from the string.
However, I'd like to work with the output as a normal Python string. So that I could print it like this:. I thought that's what the binascii. How do I convert the bytes value back to string? I mean, using the "batteries" instead of doing it manually. Because encoding is unknown, expect non-English symbols to translate to characters of cp English characters are not translated, because they match in most single byte encodings and UTF The same applies to latin-1which was popular the default?
See the missing points in Codepage Layout - it is where Python chokes with infamous ordinal not in range. UPDATE : Thanks to comment by Nearoo - there is also a possibility to slash escape all unknown bytes with backslashreplace error handler. That works only for Python 3, so even with this workaround you will still get inconsistent output from different Python versions:.
It should be slower than the cp solution, but it should produce identical results on every Python version. In Python 3the default encoding is "utf-8"so you can directly use:. On the other hand, in Python 2encoding defaults to the default string encoding.
Thus, you should use:. Aaron's answer was correct, except that you need to know which encoding to use. And I believe that Windows uses 'windows'. It will only matter if you have some unusual non-ASCII characters in your content, but then it will make a difference. By the way, the fact that it does matter is the reason that Python moved to using two different types for binary and text data: it can't convert magically between them, because it doesn't know the encoding unless you tell it!
The only way YOU would know is to read the Windows documentation or read it here. While Aaron Maenpaa's answer just works, a user recently asked :.
It can be worse. The decoding may fail silently and produce mojibake if you use a wrong incompatible encoding:. In general, what character encoding to use is not embedded in the byte sequence itself. You have to communicate this info out-of-band. Some outcomes are more likely than others and therefore chardet module exists that can guess the character encoding.
A single Python script may use multiple character encodings in different places. To decode the byte stream on-the-fly, io. TextIOWrapper could be used: example. Different commands may use different character encodings for their output e. To decode its output, you could pass the encoding explicitly Python 3. The filenames may differ from os. Since this question is actually asking about subprocess output, you have a more direct approach available since Popen accepts an encoding keyword in Python 3.In this article, we will have a look at the conversion of Python String to bytes and Python bytes to String.
Python conversion of type has gained quite an importance due to its feature of data being used during various operations in a different form. Python conversion of String to bytes and bytes to String has its own importance for the fact that it is necessary while file handling, etc.
In the above example, we have initially converted the input string to bytes using the encode method. After which, the decode method converts that encoded input to original string.
Pandas module has got Series. In the above example, we assume the data to be in encoded format. Further which, manipulations are performed on the data. In this article, we have understood the conversion of Python String to bytes and vice versa which also ponders over the concept of encoding and decoding. Python String to bytes, bytes to String — JournalDev.
Your email address will not be published.
Python: Converting string to bytes object
Generic selectors. Exact matches only. Search in title. Search in content. Search in excerpt. Search in posts. Search in pages. Prev Python String title method. Next Python String to float, float to String. Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published.
The dark mode beta is finally here. Change your preferences any time. Stack Overflow for Teams is a private, secure spot for you and your coworkers to find and share information. There appears to be two different ways to convert a string to bytes, as seen in the answers to TypeError: 'str' does not support the buffer interface.
Which of these methods would be better or more Pythonic? Or is it just a matter of personal preference? If you look at the docs for bytesit points you to bytearray :. Return a new array of bytes. It has most of the usual methods of mutable sequences, described in Mutable Sequence Types, as well as most methods that the bytes type has, see Bytes and Byte Array Methods. If it is a string, you must also give the encoding and optionally, errors parameters; bytearray then converts the string to bytes using str.
If it is an integer, the array will have that size and will be initialized with null bytes. If it is an object conforming to the buffer interface, a read-only buffer of the object will be used to initialize the bytes array.
So bytes can do much more than just encode a string.
It's Pythonic that it would allow you to call the constructor with any type of source parameter that makes sense. Edit: I checked the Python source. The absolutely best way is neither of the 2, but the 3rd. The first parameter to encode defaults to 'utf-8' ever since Python 3. Thus the best way is. This will also be faster, because the default argument results not in the string "utf-8" in the C code, but NULLwhich is much faster to check!
Learn more.Inter conversions are as usual quite popular, but conversion between a string to bytes is more common these days due to the fact that for handling files or Machine Learning Pickle Filewe extensively require the strings to be converted to bytes. String can be converted to bytes using the generic bytes function. This function internally points to CPython Library which implicitly calls the encode function for converting the string to specified encoding.
The most recommended method to perform this particular task, using the encode function to get the conversion done, as it reduces one extra linking to a particular library, this function directly calls it. If you like GeeksforGeeks and would like to contribute, you can also write an article using contribute. See your article appearing on the GeeksforGeeks main page and help other Geeks. Please Improve this article if you find anything incorrect by clicking on the "Improve Article" button below.
Writing code in comment? Please use ide. Method 1 : Using bytes str, enc String can be converted to bytes using the generic bytes function. Python code to demonstrate. Using bytes str, enc. Using encode enc. Check out this Author's contributed articles. Load Comments.